The southern states benefited from the inclusion of enslaved people in their population, as this calculation would give them more seats in the House of Representatives and therefore more political power. However, delegates from the northern states objected on the grounds that slavers could not vote, own property or use the privileges played by white men. (None of the legislators called for an end to slavery, but some representatives expressed unease about it. George Mason of Virginia called for anti-slave laws, and Governor Morris of New York called slavery “a shameful institution.” The text of the compromise, which appears in Article 1, paragraph 2, of the Constitution, states that the 13th Amendment of 1865 effectively eliminated the three-fifths compromise by prohibiting the enslavement of blacks. But when the 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868, the three-fifths compromise was officially repealed. Section 2 of the amendment states that seats in the House of Representatives should be fixed on the basis of “the total number of persons in each state, with the exception of unassured Indians.” Members of Congress in other regions have tried to reduce voting rights in the South because blacks have been disenfranked, but a 1900 proposal to do so never came to fruition. Ironically, this is because the South had too much representation in Congress to allow for change. Until the 1960s, the Southern Democrats, known as Dixiecrats, continued to have disproportionate power in Congress. This power was based in part on the black inhabitants, counted for representation, but prevented from voting by grandfather clauses and other laws that threatened their livelihoods and even their lives. The Teniecrates used the power they had in Congress to block attempts to make the South a fairer place. In the U.S.
Constitution, the three-fifths compromise is part of Article 1, paragraph 2, paragraph 2, Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868), which replaced that clause and expressly repealed the compromise.